We just won another Medical Assistance appeal issue. In this case, Medical Assitance was initially denied for nursing home benefits and the son of the Medical Assistance applicant was handed an invoice from the nursing home for over $100,000. Needless to say, he was upset. We were able to successfully argue that that the transactions at issue were not Medicaid Penalty transfers and that full Medical Assistance benefits should have been granted from day 1. We received the Administrative Law Judge opinion today removing approximatley 98% of the penalty. Client is happy.
The issue of whether or not an IRA asset is a countable asset is an interesting issue from a Maryland Medical Assistance perspective. For individuals and their spouses, when an ill spouse goes into a nursing home and reviews the issue of applying for Medical Assistance for the ill spouse, the issue that routinely comes up is the issue of what is a countable asset towards the Medical Assistance threshold for the community spouse and ill spouse (i.e. how much can the ill spouse and community spouse own and still be eligible for Medical Assistance benefits). From a Maryland perspective, and IRA account and other forms of retirement accounts are fully countable assets. This is specifically addressed in the Maryland Medical Assistance Manual and all of the caseworkers are processing Medical Assistance applications counting IRA and other forms of retirement assets as countable assets. The real question is whether or not Maryland is correct in treating the IRA and other forms of retirement assets as countable assets. The answer is Maryland may well indeed be incorrect. We are looking for the right client scenario to push this issue and clarify and correct this fundamental determination that IRA and other retirement assets should not be countable assets.
Medicaid Spousal Impoverishment Figures for 2012
The new minimum community spouse resource allowance (CSRA) is $22,728, and the new maximum CSRA is $113,640. The new maximum monthly maintenance needs allowance is $2,841. The minimum monthly maintenance needs allowance remains $1,838.75. This has yet to be implemented for Maryland. It is expected to come out shortly. It is unclear if this will be retroactive to January 1, 2012.
In part, what this means is that the community spouse of a Medical Assistance applicant can have no more than $113,640 in countable assets at the point when she is seeking eligiblity for the nursing home spouse. The prior maximum amount allowed was $109,560.
According to the newly published survey by Metlife, the average cost of long term care continues to rise. According to the report the average room nursing home rates rose nationwide by 4.4 percent to $87,235 a year or $239 a day, while assisted living facility costs jumped 5.6 percent on average to $41,724 a year or $3,477 a month.
According to the Metlife survey, Baltimore area nursing homes ranged in monthly costs (for a semi private room) from $6,944 to $9,424 a month. The Baltimore area average assisted living costs grew to $3,830 a month. The Baltimore area average home health aide charged $19/hour.
From a Maryland perspective, once an individual is eligible for long term care Medical Assistance, all of his or her income must go to the nursing home except for certain deductions. Notably, the deductions are health insurance, personal needs allowance (currently at $71/month), and possibly a spousal allowance. While there may be other needs for the nursing home resident, a question often poised is can the resident’s income be used to pay for private nurses? The answer here in Maryland is “no.” If private duty nurses or aids are going to be employed they must be paid for by other resources, typically, the surviving spouse or other family members.
So, it came as no surprise that in a recent out-of-state case, that this court also held that private nurse costs could not be deducted from the nursing home resident’s income (once they were on Medicaid). In Re Pitman v. Daines (N.Y. Sup. Ct., App., Div., No. 2011 NY Slip Op 08681, Dec. 1, 2011). In that case, the nursing home resident paid for private nurses to provide 24-hour care. After the resident died, the resident’s executor sought to have the decedent’s net available monthly income reduced for Medicaid eligibility purposes by the amount the decedent paid for
the nurses, but the state refused.
After a hearing, New York State Department of Health found for the state, and the executor appealed.
The New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, held that the amount the resident paid for private nurses could not be subtracted from his monthly income for Medicaid eligibility purposes. According to the court, “private 24-hour nursing care may have provided the deceased with ‘optimal care’ but was not ‘essential’ care that was ‘medically necessary’ for purposes of Medicaid reimbursement.”
If this same case were heard here in Maryland, it is my opinion that the court here would come to the same conclusion.
A good portion of our clients engaged in virtually no planning (before they came to our office) when faced with a parent or loved one entering a nursing home. Even in this late stage of the game, there are plenty of opportunities to protect a parent’s or loved ones’ assets from nursing home related costs. The key document to this process is the financial power of attorney for the nursing home resident. Without a doubt, this document will be key to the asset protection process. Ideally, this power of attorney was drafted by an attorney and, if recently executed, conforms with the new Maryland provisions relating to financial powers of attorney. Without this document, the next question is whether or not the nursing home resident can sign a new financial power of attorney. Even if this person cannot sign (or should not sign), then seeking court authorization will be neccessary. The absolute key is that just because one enters the nursing home do not assume that you can’t save assets at that point. That assumption is totally incorrect.
Recent Tax Court Decision Clarifies When Long-Term Care Expenses are Deductible
There is no question that long-term care can be very expensive (both assisted living and nursing home level of care). However, many of these long-term care expenses can be deducted the parent’s income tax return as a medical expense deduction. A recent U.S. Tax Court recently ruled on whether or not non-medical caregiving expenses are deductable for non-medical personnel.
In the Estate of Lillian Baral (U.S. Tax Ct., No. 3618-10, July 5, 2011), Lillian Baral suffered from dementia and her doctor recommended that she get 24-hour-a-day care. Ms. Baral’s brother hired caregivers to assist Ms. Baral with her daily activities. On her income tax return Ms. Baral included, as a medical expense deduction, the payments made to the caregivers. The IRS said the expenses were not deductable. Following Ms. Baral’s passing, her estate appealed the IRS determination to the U.S. Tax Court.
The Internal Revenue Code provides that expenses for medical care may be claimed as an itemized deduction if they exceed 7.5% of adjusted gross income (this will increase to 10% of adjusted gross income in 2012). The definition of allowable medical expenses includes the cost of long-term care if a doctor has determined the parent is chronically ill. Chronically ill is defined as needed help with such basic activities as eating, going to the bathroom, dressing, or requiring substantial supervision due to a sever cognitive impairment.
In this case, the Tax Court agreed that the payments Ms. Baral made for caregivers for assisting and supervising her were deductible medical expenses. The expenses qualified as long-term care services even though the caregivers were not medical personal since a physician found that the services provided to her were necessary due to her condition.
The issue of whether caregiving expenses are deductable as a medical expenses is a tricky area, but one that is worth exploring as the potential income tax savings may be substantial. Remember, the medical expense deduction may be available in both the nursing home as well as assisted living context. Please seek legal counsel for more detailed information.
Metlife recently released their study confirming that nursing and assisted living rates increased nationwide between 2009 and 2010. For Maryland, in the Baltimore region nursing home costs for semi-private rooms ranged from $6,200/month to $8,742/month. Nursing home costs for private rooms ranged from $6,510/month to $11,005/month. Statewide, assisted living costs in 2010 ranged from $2,800/month to $$8,250/month with the average assisted living cost at $4,122/month.
The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene released the newest Medical Assistance eligibility update which went into effect on August 10, 2010 (MR 154). The changes in this update are profound. It now allows a nursing home Medical Assistance recipient to use her income to pay for nursing home related expenses (up to 3 months retroactive) to the extent Medical Assistance does not cover said expenses (i.e. she has resources in excess of $2,500). This is a profound change by the Department and took many years of litigation by another respected elder law attorney to finally achieve this result. Bottom line, however, is that this can be a benefit for many families that are faced with outstanding nursing home expenses with no normal Medical Assistance coverage for said expenses.
The issue is this, your mother has outstanding nursing home bills and when the application was made for Medical Assistance, she did not have enough assets to pay these invoices. Given the size of nursing home costs, the outstanding expenses could well be thousands, even tens of thousands of dollars. The nursing home is going to look for payment of these invoices and may well start the involuntary discharge process unless they are paid. This new Medical Assistance provision allows for mom’s income to be used to offset these expenses for the three months prior to eligibility. Since this is a brand new provision, it is unclear at present at how efficiently such a request will be implemented by the Department of Social Services. If you find yourself in this position, it is best to contact an elder law attorney to guide you through this process.
Update: The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene will likley apply the allowance for three months prior to the application date which will overlap the current retroactive Medical Assistance eligibility period. However, there will be some instances where retroactive Medical Assistance eligilbity may not be available and where this new provision may be of profound help to many individuals.